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You will find all forms and shapes of fashion blogs as the internet is full of them. It can talk about the advantage of wearing skinny jeans over boyfriend jeans or how pink takes the place of black plus all the extras. As you go online, you will get your fill of the latest in fashion trends via fashion blogs.

Fashion As Part of Our Lives

There are people who say that they can live without fashion and this is not at all important to them. Giving it some thought, you don’t really have a choice because fashion has been a part of our being, ever since you can remember, influencing culture and society since it is brought about by factors surrounding us like the environment, weather and most of all, a person’s beliefs, values and experiences.

What Influences Fashion?

Certain periods in history that fashion has defined, involved discrimination among classes. This distinguished the royalty from non-royalty and restrictions on social dressing. During earlier times in Western Europe, the bourgeoisie were prevented by government regulations from wearing fine clothes, so as not to be identified as royalty. Since the dragon was an emperor’s symbol in China, non-royals were prohibited from wearing this. In World War II, American women’s skirts had restricted lengths because of a ration on fabrics. This just shows that fashion has a significant influence in people’s lives. It has been part of us, though we are not aware of it.

Knowing the Latest Trends Via Fashion Blogs

Present-day fashion-conscious individuals called fashionistas, have various ways of living with fashion. They check out the new trends via fashion blogs, not to be tagged as “in” or “cool” but to find out what people are wearing, nowadays. Fashion bloggers are updated, with regards to the latest trends and avoid those who go for super expensive items, suggesting chic but cheap fashion.

Popularity of Fashion Bloggers

Fashion bloggers are well-known since they used to be fashion outsiders but because of determination to gain an edge over what you may call the “snobs” of the fashion world, they have turned into admired insiders. They turn fashion world inside out with their straightforward opinions on the season’s collections, giving their honest views of the latest trends and ways on how these can be carried off by regular folks.

What Influences Fashion Blogging?

Also, they are blessed with innumerable talents, which influence their blogs. Some host fashion events while others design the displays of the world’s renowned fashion storefronts. Others shoot for fashion books while some model the ramp. Fashion blogging’s success makes advertising, among other major industries; want a share of the action. Since fashion bloggers have loyal women followers all over, they have turned into strong personalities, and every word they speak is taken seriously, just like that from the Bible. Retailers and advertisers are hopeful that their products will make it big.

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Scientific works in the theories of finances and credit, according to the specification of the research object, are characterized to be many-sided and many-leveled.

The definition of totality of the economical relations formed in the process of formation, distribution and usage of finances, as money sources is widely spread. For example, in “the general theory of finances” there are two definitions of finances:

1) “…Finances reflect economical relations, formation of the funds of money sources, in the process of distribution and redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage”. This definition is given relatively to the conditions of Capitalism, when cash-commodity relations gain universal character;

2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized ad decentralized money sources, economical relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions of the widened further production”. This definition is brought without showing the environment of its action. We share partly such explanation of finances and think expedient to make some specification.

First, finances overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the national income, though it is a basic foundation of finances. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the part of financial domain, belongs not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value during a year), but to the distribution of already developed value.

This latest first appears to be a part of value of main industrial funds, later it is moved to the cost price of a ready product (that is to the value too) and after its realization, and it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into account before hand as a depression kind in the consistence of the ready products cost price.

Second, main goal of finances is much wider then “fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and provision of conditions for the widened further production”. Finances exist on the state level and also on the manufactures and branches’ level too, and in such conditions, when the most part of the manufactures are not state.

V. M. Rodionova has a different position about this subject: “real formation of the financial resources begins on the stage of distribution, when the value is realized and concrete economical forms of the realized value are separated from the consistence of the profit”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of finances, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial foundation of finances. Though both of them give quite substantiate discussion of finances, as a system of formation, distribution and usage of the funds of money sources, that comes out of the following definition of the finances: “financial cash relations, which forms in the process of distribution and redistribution of the partial value of the national wealth and total social product, is related with the subjects of the economy and formation and usage of the state cash incomes and savings in the widened further production, in the material stimulation of the workers for satisfaction of the society social and other requests”.

In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of finances:
“Finances of the socialistic state represent economical (cash) relations, with the help of which, in the way of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the funds of money sources of the state and socialistic manufactures are formed for guaranteeing the growth of the production, rising the material and cultural level of the people and for satisfying other general society requests”.
“The system of creation and usage of necessary funds of cash resources for guarantying socialistic widened further production represent exactly the finances of the socialistic society. And the totality of economical relations arisen between state, manufactures and organizations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of cash funds make financial relations”.
As we’ve seen, definitions of finances made by financiers and political economists do not differ greatly.
In every discussed position there are:

1) expression of essence and phenomenon in the definition of finances;

2) the definition of finances, as the system of the creation and usage of funds of cash sources on the level of phenomenon.

3) Distribution of finances as social product and the value of national income, definition of the distributions planned character, main goals of the economy and economical relations, for servicing of which it is used.

New age office technology features computer accessories which have revolutionized the way we work with computers. Businessmen and corporate enterprises have found that owning a laptop or a desktop computer alone wouldn’t suffice. There are a lot of complementary components that need to go along with them to establish a full-fledged working environment.

Computer accessories aid in getting better results. They have specific purposes and benefits. Take for instance a situation where you find it difficult to view your laptop screen; you can always opt for a laptop raiser to adjust its height to your specific needs. This eliminates the constant need for bending and helps you maintain a proper posture, thereby avoiding back related ailments. Similarly, a notebook arm lets you adjust the positioning of the laptop for easy handling. This is best suited for labs and offices where there is space constraint and people are constantly on the move.

Advanced office technology solutions include the latest computer accessories, which have made the experience of working more pleasurable. Unlike earlier, when stress was a major factor affecting efficiency, today we have comfortable, anti-stress components that ease computer usage. These include gel based wrist-rest (keyboard) and mouse pads which help reduce pressure from long duration typing and handling of the mouse.

Computer monitor accessories are among the most sought after office technology solutions. Monitors emit harmful radiation and the constant glare affects our eyes. The use of anti-glare radiation filters on the monitor helps computer workaholics attain relief from headaches and watery eyes.

For corporates and big businesses, computer network accessories are definitely a boon. It is convenient to establish a computer network with the right accessories than having to run about for one thing or the other.

In an effort to ensure state-of-the-art office technology, manufacturers introduce innovative computer accessories on a regular basis. You can find cleaning kits for printers and monitors, CD/DVD lens cleansers, toolkit, computer stands and a lot more. There are many discount computer accessories stores which offer competitive pricing.

It’s fun to make your own library of classical music recordings and decide which classical composers and their music pieces you would like to include. One way is to do this is to purchase the CDs of your choice from the local chain stores. But the problem here may be the high CD cost the local stores may charge due to the overhead charges. Moreover the local store may not be able to provide you the music piece or the composer of your choice.

You are therefore left to rely on the Internet for downloading music CDs. The Internet is indeed a veritable ocean from where you can take as much music as you like sitting in the comfort of your home. There is a wide margin of choice, and a lot of competition among the vendors too. Therefore with a little search you can download the best quality music of your choice at cheaper rates. Besides the competition and the wide choice, the net vendors of classical music can afford to sell the music at cheaper rates due to the absence of overhead charges that your local store has to bear. Download of music on the Internet also eliminates the shipping charges because you are not asking for the CDs, which can only be sent by post.

You also need to select the right classical music Internet vendor. You should opt for the site that offers to supply you the labels and tracks that you want. It should offer a wide variety and flexible choices, including music by emerging artists in every music genre. You should be able to burn as many CDs as you want, transfer music to MP3 devices or any desktop, portable music player or digital device and also make multiple copies of downloaded music. Your vendor should offer to deliver music in the universally compatible MP3 format, which is the most popular and versatile digital file format. The music should have the highest quality fidelity, and should be downloadable to any platform such as PC, Macintosh and Linux.

The continent of Asia is home to unequaled exotic cultural influences and temples built in times past, white blazing beaches, and tastefully unique cuisines. This should be a tour that any cruise fan must indulge. Cruise lines are an ideal way to tour this lovely continent.

During the extent of your cruise, there will be plentiful stops at some of the best tourist destinations that Asian culture has to offer. Gorgeous landscapes and unmistakably delightful food draws more tourists than the typical tour of the Bahamas. For those of you who seek new and different climates to satisfy that touring urge, this is the place to go. The entertainment is available at every stop.

Tourist cruising routes began to frequent South East Asia because the regions there respond to visitors with such an appeal that it is irresistible. Thailand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Singapore are certain stops along the South East Asia shores. The sights are amazing and these countries offer such friendly hospitality to those who come from distant lands.

Enter the region of Wat Pho in Bangkok, Thailand and experience the splendor of the Reclining Buddha, a famous tourist attraction. Hong Kong´s bustling retail environment is overwhelming at first, but once you get used to it, you feel welcomed as an equal and there are many souvenirs and gifts to bring home.

Many countries of Asia have moved into the tourist scene in order to boost industry interest and commerce. The Maldives and India as well as Sri Lanka and Taiwan represent the growth of Asian industry, and the advances in technology appeal to private-public sector partnerships that foster global growth of business. These countries especially call to tourists for this reason.

Ten days would be the minimum amount of time to allow for your cruise to tour Asia. You should expect an early arrival in order to adjust to the difference in time. You are going a significant distance from home for this experience.

Many cruise lines will arrange for you to stay in a hotel for the duration of your adjustment to the changes in time. From that point, after you have had time to settle, your journey will begin. Be sure that you have studied the Asian customs and rituals to some extent before your arrival in these countries so that you show reverence for local customs.

On a cruise, you can tour Asia at your leisure. This is such a huge continent that there will be much for you to take in, but you can set your own pace. Enjoy the sights and entertainment completely and you need not become overwhelmed by the breadth of it all.

Home interior decorations is one all about making your house into a home. With colors, style, theme, furnishings and different decor elements a house gets its character. Starting with the living room right to the bathroom, home interior decorations looks into all the aspects of the house. The main goal for interior decoration of any room of the house is to give it an individual personality. Interior decor generally concentrates on finishes like wallpapers, wall paint, window coverings and furnishings. Along with it comes the balance of the various decoration items like wall hangings, showpieces etc. So let’s take a quick look for home interior decoration ideas for different rooms in a house.

Big Spacious Rooms

There are many ways to make a room look spacious and large. The first most important element is the room lighting. Go for soft and even lighting so that shadows don’t divide your room into smaller sections. Avoid putting ceiling lights as they make the ceiling look lower. By having a diffused and ambient lighting the room will look large. The next thing to keep in mind is the texture used in the room. Smooth surfaces tend to reflect more light as compared to heavy textured flooring. For interior decoration one can also use mirror and chrome as the reflection and shine give depth to a room. The wall colors of a room are also important in giving a spacious look to the room. Go for cream, beige, gray or cool pastels for walls. Also while selecting colors keep in mind that the ceiling should be in the lightest color in the room. The next thing comes the furniture. Place the furniture in a manner that it leaves adequate space to move around. Push the largest piece of furniture against the wall. Let the furniture color be similar to the wall and floor color of the room.

Cozy Rooms

Just like spacious rooms, cozy room interior decoration is also very much possible. Get the comfortable and settled in feeling as interior decoration creates an intimate space for you. Once more lighting will play an important role. There are many modern lighting trends that will help your room to look cozy and comfy. Avoid ceiling lights, instead lamps with down shades will help the room look compact. For room colors, go for strong wall and floor colors. This will create a feeling of closeness in your room interiors. Heavy soft textures are great for cozy room interiors. Try rough textures for the hard elements in the room. If you are trying to attract attention towards any particular piece of furniture then dark finishes and fabrics will surely tempt you to sink into that favorite sofa set. Use tall pieces for the room decor, as it creates a cozy world of intimacy.

Theme Room

A theme room is working on a particular idea and developing the home interior decoration accordingly. One can have the entire house decorated in one theme like contemporary home decor or Asian home decor or go room by room. Like the master bedroom can have a different theme, the teen room a trendy interior decor and so on. Once you have decided on the theme of the entire house or a particular room, select the decoration pieces for it.

Colors and Fabrics

In interior home decorations color and fabric are very important. When we say color, then it is not just wall colors. Select colors for fabrics, linen, pillows, curtains etc. complement it with the wall colors and give your room a vibrant look. The same concept applies to fabrics as well. Today there are so many different kinds of fabrics available. Select fabric that goes well with your room decor.

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If you really want to become more profitable and improve operations in your company, you have to shift your focus from the following limiting thoughts about technology.

 

  1. If I buy the latest production software we will be in good shape
  2. We don’t do that here
  3. We are unique, we don’t have competition that use technology to help them generate profits
  4. The plan is in my head, people will steal it off the computer
  5. All I need is more sales to make more profits

 

You’ve got to get the right mindset by eliminating restricting thoughts, and then you’ll be ready to improve people, processes and profitability.

Do you ever wonder how a company can start out with just one idea, a passion and a vision, then 10 to 20 years later have thousands of employees and millions in sales?

 

  1. What did these companies do to become so successful
  2. Are the owners smarter than you?
  3. Do they work harder than you?
  4. Did they have better equipment or people than you?

 

No. But they do use better technology tools to drive operation (the people and the process). Operations represent about 60% or 80% of all your overhead costs but they’re the least understood by US businesses.

For decades, the Japanese have focused on operations that have driven innovation and a culture of continuous improvement. In the right small business owner hands, operations and technology can be a competitive weapon.

Now, ask yourself how can your small company— with just a handful of employees and limited resources — turn operations and technology applications into a powerful weapon to beat competition and learn to grow and thrive!

Why invest in technology / What are the benefits

The bottom line is, if you’re suffering from tight cash flow, exhausted lines of credit and top-line growth, then you have weak operations and have underutilized the technology applications onsite or off-the-shelf that can help you.

First step to rapid profit improvement is to start by questioning your employees. They usually know where costly blocks and bottlenecks are hidden.

Technology can store employee survey results that help you to plan profitability.

Employee Questionnaire(sample)

 

  1. Are your interests and ambitions being challenged
  2. Does each department in this company have measurable standard designed to increase profitability? Does each area have documentation of process flows and procedures of how it should work?
  3. Does everyone in this company share the goal of improving the company profits? Does the CEO hold town hall meetings about ‘planned profits’?
  4. Are you regularly told when you do good work?
  5. Do you get the help you need to do a good job?
  6. As an employee, do you feel you can trust your direct supervisor/manager?
  7. Are owner/managers open and honest with employees?
  8. Does the company provide you with continual training in areas that will make you a better employee? Has it trained you on how to cut operating expenses or increase revenue to improve profits in your area?
  9. Are your responsibilities generally explained, well planned and organized?
  10. Is poor performance tolerated by management? i.e., worker performance, operations bottlenecks and customer relations.

The following are other ways business productivity software drives business processes more efficiently to gain optimal results:

Create an open and communicative environment.

By storing appraisal information within a formal database, managers can more easily communicate business strategy and create measurable goals for their employees that will support overall company objectives. In allowing employees to see the whole picture and understand better how individual goals fit into the company’s business objectives. This can create a energized and engaged employees, thereby raising the business productivity of the company.

Motivate your employees using technology.

Based upon the information gathered in an online performance evaluation, managers can compare current skills with those required for advancement or other recognition or reward opportunities that present themselves as the manager tracks progress on employee goals throughout the year. You may also find you need to redirect employees to different departments if you feel their business productivity could increase elsewhere. If there are impediments to better performance, the company should review why it is happening and try to eliminate these through better allocation of resources or additional training.

Monitor business productivity and employee progress on goals.

Business productivity software solutions enable managers to more easily track progress during every phase of goal completion and offer immediate reinforcement or coaching to keep performance and deadlines on track in daily operations, and utilize performance measurements for strategic planning.

Electronic Commerce

There are many business applications related to e-commerce, from setting up your online storefront to managing your supply chain to marketing your products and services. These technologies fall into three main categories:

Business to Business(B2B)

 

  • Purchasing indirect supplies
  • Look for catalogue-based websites offered by suppliers for corporate purchases, similar to business-to-customer websites, for purchasing indirect supplies such as office furniture, pens, paper, and general office equipment.
  • Leveraging your existing Web presence
  • Improve your existing business-to-customer e-commerce website. Greater sophistication can be added into your online store to target your business clientele.

 

Business to Customer(B2C)

The global reach of the Internet has allowed many businesses to sell their products and services online, both at home and abroad. An electronic storefront is a website with many pre-built e-commerce components like electronic shopping carts and secure payment gateways that you can use to set up an online store.

Internet Marketing

Everything you do to promote your business online is Internet marketing. For example, Internet marketing strategies include (but are not limited to) website design and content, search engine optimization, directory submissions, reciprocal linking strategies, online advertising, and email marketing.

How to Implement Technology to increase profits

IT implementation can be a valuable tool for increasing workplace productivity, but without a careful selection of the right technologies for your specific industry and comprehensive employee training, it can also serve to reduce productivity, profitability and employee satisfaction. The return on investment will depend on whether the technologies implemented are right for a given business’ needs and how prepared employees are to use them.

Step 1

Brainstorm a list of business process improvements you may be able to realize from a technological implementation. Your list should include three categories: improvements that you know to be possible, and which are core requirements for your expense; a wish list of things you would like to have, but which may be future development efforts; and a list of things which would transform the way you do business, but which may not be possible. These three targets provide you with a present-day implementation goal, as well as a future development target–and it may be that your transformational goals could be far easier to reach than you expect.

Step 2

Determine whether you intend to develop these technologies using in-house resources, or through outside consultancies. Nearly every major workflow technology requires extensive customization, implementation procedures and training. Small businesses can sometimes get by cheaply using staff members technologically proficient–but mistakes made at the beginning of the process can ramp up costs later on when you turn to professional outside support.

Step 3

Avoid specifying particular technologies if you do not have the technical expertise to evaluate them properly. The purpose of the managerial process at this stage is to define goals and budgetary constraints; non-technical managers who wed themselves to specific technologies too early can miss out on substantial cost savings, and choose a technology not the best suited for the work.

Step 4

Circulate your request for proposals among outside consultants and implementors, or establish an internal process for doing the same among your staff if you are keeping the work in-house. Major technological implementations will not succeed if they are added to the existing workload of an employee. Proper technological implementations can be more than a full-time job in and of themselves. Staff members shifted to technology implementation should have their existing duties moved to other staff resources.

Step 5

Negotiate a time frame, budget and implementation benchmarks with your external or internal staff resources. If you are working with an outside consultant, your contract should include protections against running over budget and over schedule. Likewise, the consultant will protect his own firm by setting specific terms of the work to be completed, and charging you extra if you change them over the course of the contract.

Step 6

Develop an implementation timetable, including the following steps: test deployment to review the work; training, if necessary; a transition phase from the current workflow to the new technology; and production deployment of the completed technology. This last phase is typically followed by an iterative process, in which improvements to the technology are collected from the staff who have direct experience working with it. When budget and time allow for it, apply a new cycle of upgrades to your technology to ensure that you are getting the most out of it.

Polyures and epoxy coatings are a new breed of concrete coatings with extraordinary benefits when properly applied with the highest quality blends. They are being applied by a small but growing network of highly skilled flooring entrepreneurs around the country. The highest quality polyureas are not massed produced. They require an investment in specific equipment and mastery of the application system.

The Application System

The first step is to acquire high production concrete grinding equipment. These are high torque grinders that cut the concrete easily. They have specialized dustless vacuum systems minimizing airborne dust. Surface preparation is critical to successful application. High spots throughout the floor are leveled, including along expansion joints, which typically are higher than most areas of the floor. Polyureas are not a self leveling product like epoxy. Epoxies tend to have varied thickness throughout the floor. Polyureas perform best with a smooth level surface resulting with a consistent coating thickness.

Once the floor is ground smooth, cracks and damaged areas, including expansion joints, are repaired with a filler compatible with the coatings. These repair products are solvent free, do not shrink, are flexible and impact resistant.

Once the floor is ground and cracks, expansion joints and damaged areas repaired, the floor can be coated. Polyureas are fast curing, avoiding downtime between repair and application.

Benefits

    1. Increased Adhesion – Grinding opens the pores of the surface allowing the first coat of the polyurea to soak into the concrete. This is typically a coat of approximately 4-5 mils thick. There are no solvents and therefore no shrinkage. The second coat is 11-12 mils thick. The combined coats become part of the floor capping off moisture pressure.
    2. Delamination Resistant – Polyurea ingredients are high quality and expensive to blend. The cross linking strength is extraordinary and will not break down due to efflorescence in the concrete. The ability to soak into the surface means the coating is part of the floor, not stuck to the surface. In most cases the concrete will break before the coating comes off.
    3. Bacteria Resistant – The highest quality polyureas are engineered to resist scratching. Micro scratches that do appear, have straight edges, not frayed. A straight edge will not harbor dirt and trap moisture that causes bacteria growth. Frayed micro scratches trap moisture and dirt creating bacteria growth and making floor difficult to keep clean.
  1. Floor Types – Polyureas are excellent for all concrete flooring. They are applied with exceptional performance for all industrial floor types including, warehouses, laboratories, distribution centers, restaurants, retail stores, dog kennels and medical facilities.
  2. Low Maintenance – Being scratch proof prevents dirt buildup. Floors are easy to clean with neoprine squeegees and look great for years. If they do start to fade, they can be lightly sanded, and a single, fast curing new coat can be applied. Service can be restored the following day.

Introduction
Computer forensics is the practice of collecting, analysing and reporting on digital information in a way that is legally admissible. It can be used in the detection and prevention of crime and in any dispute where evidence is stored digitally. Computer forensics has comparable examination stages to other forensic disciplines and faces similar issues.

About this guide
This guide discusses computer forensics from a neutral perspective. It is not linked to particular legislation or intended to promote a particular company or product and is not written in bias of either law enforcement or commercial computer forensics. It is aimed at a non-technical audience and provides a high-level view of computer forensics. This guide uses the term “computer”, but the concepts apply to any device capable of storing digital information. Where methodologies have been mentioned they are provided as examples only and do not constitute recommendations or advice. Copying and publishing the whole or part of this article is licensed solely under the terms of the Creative Commons – Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 license

Uses of computer forensics
There are few areas of crime or dispute where computer forensics cannot be applied. Law enforcement agencies have been among the earliest and heaviest users of computer forensics and consequently have often been at the forefront of developments in the field. Computers may constitute a ‘scene of a crime’, for example with hacking [ 1] or denial of service attacks [2] or they may hold evidence in the form of emails, internet history, documents or other files relevant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, fraud and drug trafficking. It is not just the content of emails, documents and other files which may be of interest to investigators but also the ‘meta-data’ [3] associated with those files. A computer forensic examination may reveal when a document first appeared on a computer, when it was last edited, when it was last saved or printed and which user carried out these actions.

More recently, commercial organisations have used computer forensics to their benefit in a variety of cases such as;

Intellectual Property theft
Industrial espionage
Employment disputes
Fraud investigations
Forgeries
Matrimonial issues
Bankruptcy investigations
Inappropriate email and internet use in the work place
Regulatory compliance

Guidelines
For evidence to be admissible it must be reliable and not prejudicial, meaning that at all stages of this process admissibility should be at the forefront of a computer forensic examiner’s mind. One set of guidelines which has been widely accepted to assist in this is the Association of Chief Police Officers Good Practice Guide for Computer Based Electronic Evidence or ACPO Guide for short. Although the ACPO Guide is aimed at United Kingdom law enforcement its main principles are applicable to all computer forensics in whatever legislature. The four main principles from this guide have been reproduced below (with references to law enforcement removed):

No action should change data held on a computer or storage media which may be subsequently relied upon in court.

In circumstances where a person finds it necessary to access original data held on a computer or storage media, that person must be competent to do so and be able to give evidence explaining the relevance and the implications of their actions.

An audit trail or other record of all processes applied to computer-based electronic evidence should be created and preserved. An independent third-party should be able to examine those processes and achieve the same result.

The person in charge of the investigation has overall responsibility for ensuring that the law and these principles are adhered to.

In summary, no changes should be made to the original, however if access/changes are necessary the examiner must know what they are doing and to record their actions.

Live acquisition
Principle 2 above may raise the question: In what situation would changes to a suspect’s computer by a computer forensic examiner be necessary? Traditionally, the computer forensic examiner would make a copy (or acquire) information from a device which is turned off. A write-blocker[4] would be used to make an exact bit for bit copy [5] of the original storage medium. The examiner would work then from this copy, leaving the original demonstrably unchanged.

However, sometimes it is not possible or desirable to switch a computer off. It may not be possible to switch a computer off if doing so would result in considerable financial or other loss for the owner. It may not be desirable to switch a computer off if doing so would mean that potentially valuable evidence may be lost. In both these circumstances the computer forensic examiner would need to carry out a ‘live acquisition’ which would involve running a small program on the suspect computer in order to copy (or acquire) the data to the examiner’s hard drive.

By running such a program and attaching a destination drive to the suspect computer, the examiner will make changes and/or additions to the state of the computer which were not present before his actions. Such actions would remain admissible as long as the examiner recorded their actions, was aware of their impact and was able to explain their actions.

Stages of an examination
For the purposes of this article the computer forensic examination process has been divided into six stages. Although they are presented in their usual chronological order, it is necessary during an examination to be flexible. For example, during the analysis stage the examiner may find a new lead which would warrant further computers being examined and would mean a return to the evaluation stage.

Readiness
Forensic readiness is an important and occasionally overlooked stage in the examination process. In commercial computer forensics it can include educating clients about system preparedness; for example, forensic examinations will provide stronger evidence if a server or computer’s built-in auditing and logging systems are all switched on. For examiners there are many areas where prior organisation can help, including training, regular testing and verification of software and equipment, familiarity with legislation, dealing with unexpected issues (e.g., what to do if child pornography is present during a commercial job) and ensuring that your on-site acquisition kit is complete and in working order.

Evaluation
The evaluation stage includes the receiving of clear instructions, risk analysis and allocation of roles and resources. Risk analysis for law enforcement may include an assessment on the likelihood of physical threat on entering a suspect’s property and how best to deal with it. Commercial organisations also need to be aware of health and safety issues, while their evaluation would also cover reputational and financial risks on accepting a particular project.

Collection
The main part of the collection stage, acquisition, has been introduced above. If acquisition is to be carried out on-site rather than in a computer forensic laboratory then this stage would include identifying, securing and documenting the scene. Interviews or meetings with personnel who may hold information which could be relevant to the examination (which could include the end users of the computer, and the manager and person responsible for providing computer services) would usually be carried out at this stage. The ‘bagging and tagging’ audit trail would start here by sealing any materials in unique tamper-evident bags. Consideration also needs to be given to securely and safely transporting the material to the examiner’s laboratory.

Analysis
Analysis depends on the specifics of each job. The examiner usually provides feedback to the client during analysis and from this dialogue the analysis may take a different path or be narrowed to specific areas. Analysis must be accurate, thorough, impartial, recorded, repeatable and completed within the time-scales available and resources allocated. There are myriad tools available for computer forensics analysis. It is our opinion that the examiner should use any tool they feel comfortable with as long as they can justify their choice. The main requirements of a computer forensic tool is that it does what it is meant to do and the only way for examiners to be sure of this is for them to regularly test and calibrate the tools they use before analysis takes place. Dual-tool verification can confirm result integrity during analysis (if with tool ‘A’ the examiner finds artefact ‘X’ at location ‘Y’, then tool ‘B’ should replicate these results.)

Presentation
This stage usually involves the examiner producing a structured report on their findings, addressing the points in the initial instructions along with any subsequent instructions. It would also cover any other information which the examiner deems relevant to the investigation. The report must be written with the end reader in mind; in many cases the reader of the report will be non-technical, so the terminology should acknowledge this. The examiner should also be prepared to participate in meetings or telephone conferences to discuss and elaborate on the report.

Review
Along with the readiness stage, the review stage is often overlooked or disregarded. This may be due to the perceived costs of doing work that is not billable, or the need ‘to get on with the next job’. However, a review stage incorporated into each examination can help save money and raise the level of quality by making future examinations more efficient and time effective. A review of an examination can be simple, quick and can begin during any of the above stages. It may include a basic ‘what went wrong and how can this be improved’ and a ‘what went well and how can it be incorporated into future examinations’. Feedback from the instructing party should also be sought. Any lessons learnt from this stage should be applied to the next examination and fed into the readiness stage.

Issues facing computer forensics
The issues facing computer forensics examiners can be broken down into three broad categories: technical, legal and administrative.

Encryption – Encrypted files or hard drives can be impossible for investigators to view without the correct key or password. Examiners should consider that the key or password may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. It could also reside in the volatile memory of a computer (known as RAM [6] which is usually lost on computer shut-down; another reason to consider using live acquisition techniques as outlined above.

Increasing storage space – Storage media holds ever greater amounts of data which for the examiner means that their analysis computers need to have sufficient processing power and available storage to efficiently deal with searching and analysing enormous amounts of data.

New technologies – Computing is an ever-changing area, with new hardware, software and operating systems being constantly produced. No single computer forensic examiner can be an expert on all areas, though they may frequently be expected to analyse something which they haven’t dealt with before. In order to deal with this situation, the examiner should be prepared and able to test and experiment with the behaviour of new technologies. Networking and sharing knowledge with other computer forensic examiners is also very useful in this respect as it’s likely someone else may have already encountered the same issue.

Anti-forensics – Anti-forensics is the practice of attempting to thwart computer forensic analysis. This may include encryption, the over-writing of data to make it unrecoverable, the modification of files’ meta-data and file obfuscation (disguising files). As with encryption above, the evidence that such methods have been used may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. In our experience, it is very rare to see anti-forensics tools used correctly and frequently enough to totally obscure either their presence or the presence of the evidence they were used to hide.

Legal issues
Legal arguments may confuse or distract from a computer examiner’s findings. An example here would be the ‘Trojan Defence’. A Trojan is a piece of computer code disguised as something benign but which has a hidden and malicious purpose. Trojans have many uses, and include key-logging [7], uploading and downloading of files and installation of viruses. A lawyer may be able to argue that actions on a computer were not carried out by a user but were automated by a Trojan without the user’s knowledge; such a Trojan Defence has been successfully used even when no trace of a Trojan or other malicious code was found on the suspect’s computer. In such cases, a competent opposing lawyer, supplied with evidence from a competent computer forensic analyst, should be able to dismiss such an argument.

Accepted standards – There are a plethora of standards and guidelines in computer forensics, few of which appear to be universally accepted. This is due to a number of reasons including standard-setting bodies being tied to particular legislations, standards being aimed either at law enforcement or commercial forensics but not at both, the authors of such standards not being accepted by their peers, or high joining fees dissuading practitioners from participating.

Fitness to practice – In many jurisdictions there is no qualifying body to check the competence and integrity of computer forensics professionals. In such cases anyone may present themselves as a computer forensic expert, which may result in computer forensic examinations of questionable quality and a negative view of the profession as a whole.

Resources and further reading
There does not appear to be a great amount of material covering computer forensics which is aimed at a non-technical readership. However the following links at links at the bottom of this page may prove to be of interest prove to be of interest:

Glossary
1. Hacking: modifying a computer in way which was not originally intended in order to benefit the hacker’s goals.
2. Denial of Service attack: an attempt to prevent legitimate users of a computer system from having access to that system’s information or services.
3. Meta-data: at a basic level meta-data is data about data. It can be embedded within files or stored externally in a separate file and may contain information about the file’s author, format, creation date and so on.
4. Write blocker: a hardware device or software application which prevents any data from being modified or added to the storage medium being examined.
5. Bit copy: bit is a contraction of the term ‘binary digit’ and is the fundamental unit of computing. A bit copy refers to a sequential copy of every bit on a storage medium, which includes areas of the medium ‘invisible’ to the user.
6. RAM: Random Access Memory. RAM is a computer’s temporary workspace and is volatile, which means its contents are lost when the computer is powered off.
7. Key-logging: the recording of keyboard input giving the ability to read a user’s typed passwords, emails and other confidential information.

India is a land of contrasts with diverse languages, ethnic groups, religions and traditions. Immerse yourself in the teaming bazaars, holy cities and Moghul forts. See a wide array of wildlife with 500 species of animals including tiger, leopard, elephant, and rhino, 200 species and sub-species of birds and 30,000 insect species.

High Himalayas, dark deep woods, Great Indian Desert, and an extensive coastline make India a formidable destination for those who are always up for dares and challenges. Adventure Holidays in India are rigorous and intense. You can opt for India Luxury Tours with sufficient number of adventure activities planned throughout the itinerary or go for more unusual travel experiences that qualify for off-the-beaten track adventure trips in India.

Jungle safaris on an elephant’s back along Tiger Trails in some of the best known National Parks and Tiger Reserves of India might be more popular but you might love to go for adrenaline-pumping motorbike safaris on a Royal Enfield or ‘Bullet’ as it is popularly known in India. Hot air ballooning, para-gliding, heli-skiing, zip-lining over the ancient Neemrana Fort are just some of the various fun activities you can opt for during your India Adventure Tours.

Bicycle tours along the countryside in South India are highly recommended if you want to experience real India first-hand. An option to stay and dine with traditional Indian families in their homes allows you to mingle with the locals and know more about their culture and lifestyle. Riding an elephant back like a King or Queen to the Amber Fort in Jaipur, Rajasthan is fun while Horse Safaris with descendants of erstwhile royals to rural Rajasthan or high-altitude trails in Himalayas are once-in-a-lifetime experiences you will cherish forever.

It takes some time to get used to the wobbly strides of a Camel, the Ship of the Desert and the most popular form of transport to more remote areas of Rajasthan. Yak Ride in Ladakh is another unusual activity you might want to try. There are endless options for Bird watching Tours and Wildlife Adventure Tours throughout India and each region has its own flavor with unique climatic and geological conditions, amazing biodiversity, and rare and endangered species of flora and fauna endemic to that region.

Those who are more active may perhaps want to go for more rigorous options of mountaineering, rock climbing, trekking, skiing, white river rafting, rappelling, bungee jumping, cliff jumping, snorkeling and deep sea diving. There is no dearth of adventure in India. The vastness of the country offers such diversity of landscapes and geology that it just takes a little imagination to come up with a personalized tour itinerary that keep entire group of vacationers happy for any length of time.

Fun-filled nights in Goa, known for its tropical beaches and music, serve as a happy break to foreign tourists from America and Europe who feel more at home there. The early Portuguese domination in Goa followed by the British rule has lent an European feel to the entire region. You will find a number of swanky churches here too.

Romantic houseboat cruises in Kerala backwaters many not make blood rush to your ears but they are highly recommended for couples visiting the country. The quaint beauty of thick forests casting their emerald green reflection in the channels and waterways look especially beautiful at sunrise. Bird songs, and fishes and amphibians (not found anywhere else in the world) that you encounter during Kerala houseboat cruises provide a perfect epilogue to your delightful adventure tours in
India.
Adventure holidays are becoming the choice of today’s traveler. India offers wide opportunities in this field because of its rich and varied climates. In northern India, one could experience trekking, mountaineering, gliding, paragliding and many other adventure activities in snow covered peaks of Himachal and Uttaranchal. In Rajasthan, adventure has a different face. You can experience the heat of desert and sand dunes while on Camel Safaries or Jeep safaris. South India offers water sporting opportunities like boat race, water sports and much more.

If you love wildlife, you can take experience the beauty in dense forest among wild animals in wildlife safaris, jungle safaris and jeep safaris of Uttaranchal and Karnataka. Uttaranchal, the land of holy rivers and there origins offers White water rafting and is hub for various other adventure sports activities like trekking, river rafting and wildlife safari. Garhwal offers some very exciting opportunities for the water sport lover. The Ganga with its frothing and foaming waters throw up a challenge that no rafter on this earth can look away from. The rivers in Uttaranchal are said to offer the best rafting opportunities in world. The hills of North India have all the ingredients for exploit packed with thrills – an unexplored valley, towering peaks, flowing rivers, a splendid combination of flora & fauna, snow-capped mountains and vast tracts of virgin snow.

Karanataka, another state in India unfolds its many surprises that seem to have been created just for the adventure holidays seekers and nature lovers. Verdant forest, unexplored hill ranges and deep blue water are peculiar features which describes adventurous tours in Karanataka in the form of Rock climbing, Aerosports, Water Sports, White water Rafting, coracling, canoeing, kayaking and windsurfing.

The beauty of Kashmir attracts many tourists to this “Paradise on Earth”. Apart from the enthusiastic nature lovers, the high peaks of the Himalayas attract thousands of adventure sports lovers to the state. Adventure holidays in Kashmir are increasingly attracting Indian and overseas lovers of the outdoors.

Kashmir is one of the major attractions for the tourists for enjoying holidays. A range of options exist in the valley for the adventure loving visitors. There are some places in the valley where the adventure sports facilities are available like Gulmarg, Sonmarg, Pahalgam, Drass, etc. The mountain ranges as well as the gushing rivers of the valley provide abundant opportunities for adventure travel in Kashmir.

Other states of India are also encouraging adventure tours and tourism and several adventure tour parks and camps are being organized for a traveler seeking adventure tours.